Abstract and Keywords

A structured abstract should provide the context or background for the study and state the study’s purposes, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations and reflect the content of the article. Generally it should have the following headings:

1. Objective: State the purpose or objective of the study.

2. Methods: Generally, the following are included:

a. Study Design: use phrases such as randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial, case-control or cross-sectional study, cohort study, case series or report, systematic review, meta-analysis, review, experimental study, historical manuscript.

b. Setting: Multicenter, Institution (Tertiary Private Hospital; Tertiary Government Hospital), Clinical Practice

c. Subjects, Participants, Patients or Population: Number of patients, selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, masking.

3. Results: Summary of principal outcome measures or data obtained, accompanied by data with confidence intervals and levels of statistical significance when applicable.

4. Conclusions: Concise and directly supported by data.

Keywords: Provide 3 to 10 key words or short phrases that capture the main topics of the article to assist in cross-indexing. Terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used; except when suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms.

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