For Authors

Download the complete: Instructions to Authors (PDF) .

1.  Manuscripts should be submitted via the editorial online submission and peer-review system available at PJOHNS. Authors must first register to use the site. There are NO article processing charges or fees for submission, editing, review, and publication.

2. Manuscripts must be accompanied by accomplished author statements in the forms provided in each issue or available from Author Forms. The following information is contained:

  • A full statement that the manuscript is original material that is not being considered for publication or has not been published or accepted for publication elsewhere, in full or in part, in print or electronic media. All previous reports that might be regarded as redundant publication of the same or very similar work should be referred to specifically and referenced in the new paper. Copies of such material should be included with the manuscript.
  • A statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship have been met by each author, listing their specific contribution(s), and that each author believes that the manuscript represents honest work; In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work he or she has done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors. All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged.
  • A disclosure statement of financial or other (including personal) relationships, intellectual passion, political or religious beliefs, and institutional affiliations that might lead to a conflict of interest, if that information is not included in the manuscript itself;
  • A copyright transfer form signed by all authors; and
  • The acknowledgement by the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs. Copies of any permission to reproduce published material, to use illustrations or report information about identifiable people, to name people for their contributions, and the completeness, validity and reliability of all manuscript data must be guaranteed by the corresponding author.

3. Manuscripts should be neatly prepared in correct English using Microsoft Word, RTF or Word Perfect software on A4 format in Times New Roman font size 12, double spaced, with a 1 inch margin on all sides. When necessary, the manuscript should employ italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses). A maximum of twenty (20) pages (for original articles) is allowed for the text, with one (1) additional page each for proposed algorithms, figures or tables. Generally, a maximum of twenty (20) references are allowed. If the MS Word “Track Changes” tool has been used in manuscript preparation, all changes in the document should have been accepted and the “Track Changes” feature turned off before submission. Citations and references should be typed manually (i.e., do NOT use automatic numbering or tools such as EndNote).

4. Manuscripts should be ordered as follows: (1) title page (2) abstract including keywords (3) text (4) acknowledgements (5) references (6) tables (7) figure legends and (8) individual figures (each attached separately in .jpeg format). Number the pages of the manuscript consecutively, beginning with the title page as page one. Elements from part (1) authors and affiliations, title and (2) abstract and keywords should be copied and pasted separately in the appropriate spaces under Step 2 (Entering the Submission’s Metadata) of the 5-step submission process. Following this, Parts (1) to (7) should be fully uploaded under Step 3 (Upload Submission) portion. However, each figure (8) should be uploaded separately as a supplementary file. The author statement forms should also be uploaded separately as supplementary files.

5. Authors can check the progress of their submissions online and should respond to all requests from the editor in a timely manner.

Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for its content. He or she should have made substantial contributions to all four of the following conditions: (1) a. conception or design of the work, or b. acquisition, or c. analysis and interpretation of data for the work; AND (2) a. drafting or b. revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content; AND (3) Final approval of the version to be published; AND (4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. General supervision of the research, collection of data, funding acquisition or statistical analysis do not constitute authorship.

To prevent information on potential conflict of interest for authors from being overlooked or misplaced, it is necessary for that information to be part of the manuscript. Each author is expected to disclose any type of financial or proprietary interest related to the manuscript, including (but not limited to) stock in or ownership of an entity connected to a product described in the paper, consultancy for the company or competing companies, honoraria, travel support or patent rights to a drug, instrument or equipment, or benefits derived from the use thereof. Conflict of Interest also includes “intellectual passion,” (the tendency to favor positions that one has already espoused or perhaps even established); personal relationships (the tendency to judge the works of friends/colleagues or competitors/foes differently because of the relationship); political or religious beliefs (the tendency to favor or reject positions because it affirms or challenges one’s political or religious beliefs); and institutional affiliations (the tendency to favor or reject results of research because of one’s institutional affiliations). Where no conflict of interest exists, a written statement should be made to that effect.

1. Copyright transfer ensures maximum international protection and facilities efficient processing of requests for reprints. It includes inclusion in document delivery services, electronic journal database, and online journal versions.

2. Each author retains moral rights to his/her/their article(s), including the right to be identified as the author(s) whenever or wherever the article is cited or published.

3.  Assigning the copyright does not forfeit author(s)’s rights to reprint their article(s) or contribute them elsewhere after obtaining written permission from the editors, provided that the PJOHNS is acknowledged as the original source.

4. Where in special cases, a contributor’s employer (such as the government) holds the copyright to an article, written non- exclusive permission to deal with reprint requests from third parties should be provided the editors.

5. By signing the copyright form, authors certify that the submitted article is their original work, that it has not been previously published nor is it being considered for publication elsewhere; that they have obtained permission for and acknowledged the source(s) of quoted excerpts or paraphrased references in the text, tables, figures and algorithms. Further, authors certify that to the best of their knowledge, their article is free of libelous, unlawful or actionable contents.

The title page should include:

1. The title of the article, which should be informative and concise, usually limited to 150 characters. The title should fully reflect the contents of the article and include keywords that will make electronic retrieval both sensitive and specific.

2. Full name of each author (last, given, middle initial) with academic degree(s) and the name and address of the department(s) / institution(s) with which each author is affiliated or to which the work should be attributed.

3. Corresponding author’s name and contact details (mailing address, phone/fax number and email address, including a statement whether the email address may be published). The corresponding author (who does not need to be the first author on the manuscript) will be responsible for all inquiries about the manuscript and reprint requests; a statement that reprints will not be available from the author should be made if such is the case.

4. Disclosure, including financial or funding support (including grants, equipment, drugs). Provide the agency or company name and location, fellowship name, and grant number.

5. The number of tables and figures. It is difficult for editorial staff and reviewers to tell if the tables and figures that should have accompanied a manuscript were actually included unless the numbers of figures and tables that belong to the manuscript are noted on the title page.

6. List of meeting(s) where the material has been previously presented or is under consideration for presentation. Indicate name, place, date of meeting and any prizes or awards (if presented in a contest).

A structured abstract should provide the context or background for the study and state the study’s purposes, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals, observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. It should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations and reflect the content of the article. Generally it should have the following headings:

1. Objective: State the purpose or objective of the study.

2. Methods: Generally, the following are included:

a. Study Design: use phrases such as randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial, case-control or cross-sectional study, cohort study, case series or report, systematic review, meta-analysis, review, experimental study, historical manuscript.

b. Setting: Multicenter, Institution (Tertiary Private Hospital; Tertiary Government Hospital), Clinical Practice

c. Subjects, Participants, Patients or Population: Number of patients, selection procedures, inclusion/exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, masking.

3. Results: Summary of principal outcome measures or data obtained, accompanied by data with confidence intervals and levels of statistical significance when applicable.

4. Conclusions: Concise and directly supported by data.

Keywords: Provide 3 to 10 key words or short phrases that capture the main topics of the article to assist in cross-indexing. Terms from the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used; except when suitable MeSH terms are not yet available for recently introduced terms.

1. Introduction: without a heading, provide a context and brief background for the study, giving only pertinent references in the literature review. State the nature of the research problem and its significance, major hypothesis or rationale, objectives or purpose of the study or observation.

2. Methods: should only include information available at the time the study plan or protocol was written; all information obtained during the course of the study belongs in the Results section. Provide sufficient detail to permit replication by others. Generally, it should contain the following:

a. Study Design: use phrases such as randomized or nonrandomized clinical trial, case-control or cross-sectional study, cohort study, case series or report, systematic review, meta-analysis, review, experimental study, historical manuscript. Additional modifiers may be used (e.g. retrospective, prospective, double-blinded). Reporting guidelines may be accessed as follows:


Type of Study



randomized controlled trials


systematic reviews and meta-analyses


observational studies in epidemiology


studies of diagnostic accuracy


case reports

b. Setting: Multicenter, Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Public or Private, Hospital, University Hospital or Clinical Practice

c. Subjects or Participants: Number of patients, selection procedures, eligibility and exclusion criteria, randomization procedure, masking. Do not use patients’ names, initials, or hospital numbers

For studies involving human subjects, indicate whether procedures were in accord with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, and/or approved by the institutional review board (IRB) / Ethics Committee, and whether informed consent was secured. For animal subjects, indicate whether the institution’s or National Research Council’s guide for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed

d. Intervention or observation procedure(s) should be identified in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility of results. Identify methods, instruments and equipment with the manufacturers name and address in parenthesis, e.g. (Zeiss Corporation,San Leandro, CA, USA). Identify all drugs and chemicals including generic name(s), dosage(s) and route(s) of administration. Use milligram per kilogram dosages for pediatric patients. For metaanalyses or systematic reviews, cite methods used for locating, selecting, extracting and synthesizing data.

e. Main and secondary outcome measure(s)

f. Data and Statistical analysis: Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify reported results. When possible, quantify findings and present them with appropriate indicators of measurement error or uncertainty (such as confidence intervals). Avoid relying solely on statistical hypothesis testing, such as the use of P values, which fail to convey important information about effect size. References for the study design and statistical methods should be to standard works when possible (with pages stated). Define statistical terms, abbreviations, and most symbols. Specify computer software and statistical packages used, eg MS Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) or Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 6.12 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA).

3. Results: Provide demographic data of the study population. Describe outcomes and measurements in a logical sequence with minimum discussion. Do not repeat in the text what can be summarized in tables and figures. When data are summarized in the Results section, give numeric results not only as derivatives (for example, percentages) but also as the absolute numbers (for example, fractions) from which the derivatives were calculated, and specify the statistical methods used to analyze them. Restrict tables and figures to those needed to explain the argument of the paper and to assess its support. Use graphs as an alternative to tables with many entries; do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Avoid nontechnical uses of technical terms in statistics, such as “random” (which implies a randomizing device), “normal,”“significant,” “correlations,”and“sample.”Where scientifically appropriate, analyses of the data by variables such as age and sex should be included.

4. Discussion: Restrict to significant findings presented, emphasizing new and important aspects of the study. Avoid excessive generalization, undue speculation, digressions and theorizing. Elucidate but do not repeat data in the results section, discuss implications and limitations and relate these to other and contradictory literature. Incorporate conclusions supported by the data into the end of the discussion, without a separate heading. State new hypothesis when warranted, but clearly label them as such. Avoid making statements on economic benefits and costs unless the study includes economic data and analysis. Avoid claiming priority of content unless you provide the literature search protocol used. Include recommendations when appropriate.

All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, statistical analysis, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed under a heading such as “clinical investigators” or “participating investigators,” and their function or contribution should be described—for example, “served as scientific advisors,” “critically reviewed the study proposal,” “collected data,” or “provided and cared for study patients.” Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, all persons so named must give written permission to be acknowledged.

Provide direct references to original research sources whenever possible but avoid extensive lists of references to original work on a topic. Small numbers of references to key original papers will serve as well as more exhaustive lists, since electronic literature searching allows readers to retrieve published literature efficiently. Where available, Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) or URLs for the references should be provided Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming”; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, authors should obtain written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication. To minimize citation errors, authors should verify references against original documents. Authors are responsible for checking that none of the references cite retracted articles except in the context of referring to the retraction. For articles published in MEDLINE-indexed journals, the ICMJE considers PubMed ( the authoritative source for information about retractions.

References should be cited as follows:

  1. In the text, tables and legends references should be indicated using Arabic numerical superscripts corresponding to their listing at the end of the manuscript. For instance:

    The wound should be irrigated with clean water.5Meara6 advocates debridement with a sponge.

    All non-original material should acknowledge the source reference; direct quotations should be enclosed in quotation marks and cited. Parapharasing does not render material original, and should be avoided.

2. At the end of the manuscript, references should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text.

3. References cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or figure.


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